Most injuries during running are overuse injuries caused as a result of repeatedly pushing off with and landing on the feet as a result of which ankles, knees, hips and the back can suffer extreme loads. Body parts that can be severely overloaded during running are the shins, the Achilles tendons and the ankles.
With a case of shin splints, the pain occurs on the inside of the shin. The cause if often the sum of various factors such as running on too hard a surface, incorrect footwear and/or insufficient recovery time between two training sessions.
A commonly occurring injury during running is a sprained or twisted ankle. In most cases, the injury occurs following a landing on the outside of the foot, whereby the sole of the foot twists too far inwards. On the outside of the foot, capsula, ligaments and nerve fibre can be damaged due to overstretching. On the inside, cartilage can be damaged by excessive compression.
Depending on the seriousness of the injury, the tissue on the outside is either stretched or torn. This damage causes bleeding in the ankle. As a result, the ankle swells, (after a short time) bruises and becomes painful.